OCT is a noninvasive system that allows for cross-sectional imaging in vivo, using light waves, which are akin to the sound waves in ultrasonography. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpretations and limitations of OCT imaging. I stopped plaquenil and now i have gout Hydroxychloroquine anesthesia Plaquenil mechanism of action Plaquenil 400 mg side effects These findings suggest that the retinal ganglion cells may be affected initially or primarily in the early course of retinal toxicity, and we speculate that the structure of the ganglion cells and. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ. Previous histopathological studies reported that the initial dramatic changes of hydroxychloroquine toxicity were observed in the retinal ganglion cell layer 18, 19. On the other hand, recent OCT studies have suggested that selective thinning of perifoveal inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers was found in patients treated with long-term hydroxychloroquine. Low-coherence interferometry was then adapted for use in OCT. The initial application of low-coherence interferometry in ophthalmology was for measurements of axial length. Ganglion cell layer and plaquenil toxicity Selective thinning of the perifoveal inner retina as an., Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Treatment. Stopping plaquenil for lupusChloroquine blood to plasma ratioChloroquine concentrationChloroquine resistant malaria usmle Oct 16, 2017 Retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer of group 1 was found to be statistically thinner than that of group 2 both on average and in all segments superior, superonasal, inferonasal, inferotemporal and superotemporal except inferior segment when segmented p0.05. A New Objective Parameter in Hydroxychloroquine-Induced.. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on the Retinal Layers A.. Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity Early Signs. Diagnosis Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity Discussion. Chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil HCQ have been used for many years, initially for the treatment of malaria but now more commonly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 1is now considered for new disease applications in diabetes, heart disease and adjunct. The exact mechanism of retinal toxicity is still under investigation. Despite the evident clinical changes in retinal pigmented epithelium RPE when the maculopathy is already visible, studies in animals after long exposure to chloroquine demonstrated that the first site of damage is most probably the ganglion cell layer.” Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil and chloroquine cause ocular toxicity to various parts of the eye such as the cornea, ciliary body, and retina. Chloroquine can also induce cataract formation; however, no reports of hydroxychloroquine and cataract have been reported 1.