It is bioactivated hepatically to its primary metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine, by the cytochrome p450 enzyme CYP2C8. Among amodiaquine users, several rare but serious side effects have been reported and linked to variants in the CYP2C8 alleles. Chloroquine mechanism of action iodine Hydroxychloroquine sulfate and weight gain Plaquenil eye damage reversible Symmetrel plaquenil interaction The pharmacokinetics of chloroquine were studied after intramuscular and intravenous administration of the drug to healthy African adults. Chloroquine was analysed in plasma using an h.p.l.c. method and pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from the concentration-time data using a non-linear computer programme. Jan 19, 2010 Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in Thais plasma and red-cell concentrations following an intravenous infusion to healthy subjects and patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Br. J. It is the first-line treatment for P. falciparum complicated malaria and is a treatment option for P. falciparum uncomplicated malaria in chloroquine-resistant regions. 25–27 Quinine seems to act against Plasmodium spp. by inhibiting haem polymerase that leads to toxic haem levels. 27 Quinine metabolism is interesting because acute malaria influences absorption, the binding-protein fraction, CYP450 activity and excretion of quinine. People who are poor metabolizers of amodiaquine display lower treatment efficacy against malaria, as well as increased toxicity. CYP2C8*1 is characterized as the wild-type allele, which shows an acceptable safety profile, while CYP2C8*2, *3 and *4 all show a range of "poor metabolizer" phenotypes. Pharmacokinetics of quinine chloroquine and amodiaquine Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Volume 30, Issue 4 - Springer, Pharmacokinetics of Chloroquine and. Chloroquine phosphate and alcoholPlaquenil made from what rootHydroxychloroquine and sulfa allergyPlaquenil and heart disease Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria. Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, headache, changes in vision and muscle weakness. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions. It does not appear to be safe during Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug interactions.. Pharmacokinetics of quinine in obesity - ScienceDirect. Chloroquine, noncurative, and amodiaquine, partially curative, have nearly the same initial dose-independent killing with a lag phase of minimal parasite reduction at all doses between 6 and 24. The pharmacokinetics of artesunate and amodiaquine and their main active metabolites dihydroartemisinin and desethylamodiaquine were compared following monotherapy and combination therapy using analysis of variance. Quinine and chloroquine may cause potentially lethal hypotension if given by intravenous injection. Chloroquine is extensively distributed with an enormous total apparent volume of distribution Vd more than 100 L/kg, and a terminal elimination half-life of 1 to 2 months.